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Greenbyte Documentation

Cascading Potential Power - Wind

Cascading Potential Power (PCP) is used for any signal requiring a potential power value, for example, Lost Production to downtime. The order of the variables to be used for calculations is determined by the potential power order assigned to the device. PCP uses this potential power order to attempt to fill as many time steps as possible with potential power data. If none is specified, it will use the potential power order that is configured as the default for the portfolio.

The possible potential powers provided by the platform are listed in the Input section.

There are two sub-types of PCP:

  • Performance

  • Contractual

Pcp Performance

Pcp performance is used for all performance calculations, for example, Performance Index. This uses the same potential power order as the normal Pcp, but it excludes potential power signals that use reference devices. This Pcp is only using data from the actual turbine.

Cascading_Potential_Power_-_Wind_-_Performance.png

Pcp Contractual

Pcp contractual is used for all contractual calculations, for example, Lost Production Contractual. This Pcp uses the potential power order assigned to an availability contract. Three different signals are available for service, global, and custom contracts.

Turbines
  • PCP - Cascading Potential Power - 1457

  • PCP,contract,service - Cascading Potential Power Contractual - 1458

  • PCP,contract,global - Cascading Potential Power Contractual (Global) - 6949

  • PCP,contract,custom - Cascading Potential Power Contractual (Custom) - 6950

  • PCP,perf - Cascading Potential Power Performance - 1459

Technology

Wind

Inputs

Any potential power can be added in a potential power order:

Turbines

Potential Power Estimated

The signal estimates power by extrapolating power data between known data points before and after power data was unavailable. For any contiguous time steps of unavailable power data, the calculation uses the average of the values from the six closest time steps which have available data to fill in the missing data.

Technology

Turbine

Remarks

The signal is intended to be used as a last fallback in a cascading potential power order for when there is no data available, for example, during a full site outage.

Equation
Potential_Power_Estimated_-_Equation.png

Where:

Pp

is the Potential estimated power

P

is the Power

Pu

is the Power value at the time step u

U

is the period with Power values, 60 minutes before the latest available data before an outage. This hour may have power data missing in it, which is simply ignored. If no historic available data was found, the same search is done forward in time after the outage.

Inputs
Potential_Power_Estimated_-_Input.png
Usage Example

This will be updated later.

Potential Power Met Mast Anemometer & Potential Power Met Mast Anemometer MPC

These signals provide an estimation of the theoretical power that the turbine should be able to produce based on the reference wind speed of met masts. The system uses the measured wind speed of the met masts. To get the estimated wind speed, the platform calculates the average of all wind speeds from met masts referenced by the turbine to find a power value in the default power curve or the active power curve (multiple power curves). Met masts can have up to four referenced wind speed signals from their anemometers.

Technology

Wind

Remarks

N/A

Equation
Potential_power_met_mast_anemometer___Potential_power_met_mast_anemometer_MPC_-_Equation.png

Where:

Pp

is the Potential power Met mast anemometer or Potential power Met mast anemometer MPC

PC()

is the look-up function on the used Power Curve:

  • Default power curve for Potential power Met mast anemometer

  • Multiple power curve for Potential power Met mast anemometer MPC

wi

is the ith referenced Wind speed from referenced met masts.

wavg

is the average Wind speed for all referenced Wind speeds from referenced met masts.

Inputs

Default Power Curve

Potential_power_met_mast_anemometer___Potential_power_met_mast_anemometer_MPC_-_Default_Power_Curve.png

Multiple Power Curves

Potential_power_met_mast_anemometer___Potential_power_met_mast_anemometer_MPC_-_Multiple_Power_Curve.png
Usage Example

This section will be updated later.

Potential Power Reference Turbines

This signal calculates the potential power for a turbine.

Note

  • If their capacity is the same, it considers the power of the reference turbine(s).

  • If the turbines have different rated capacities, it normalizes them.

  • Turbines with an ongoing stop status are not referenceable.

When defining a turbine as a reference, it is also important to consider the curtailment schemes of the turbine under analysis. If the turbine has an active curtailment status and if the Referenceable option is enabled in the Administrate / Curtailment section, it is possible to use it as a reference turbine. Otherwise, the platform will ignore that turbine and it will take the next one or it will take the next potential power defined in the potential power order for that turbine under administrate wind turbines.

Technology

Wind

Remarks

There are multiple potential power reference turbines signals:

  • Potential power reference turbines (225)

  • Potential power primary reference turbines (1463)

  • Potential power secondary reference turbines (1464)

The only difference between these signals is which reference devices to look at.

Equation

Potential power reference turbines are calculated for every time step using the equation:

Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Equation_1.png

Where:

Pp

is the Potential power reference turbines.

Pr

is the Rated power for the current turbine, taken from the MPC power curve.

n

are the number of reference turbines with a valid power curve that neither has an active Stop status nor any referenceable active Curtailment status.

PFi

is the Power factor for turbine i.

The Power factor PFi is calculated using the equation:

Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Equation_2.png

Where:

Pai

is the actual Power for turbine i.

Pri

is the Rated power for turbine i, taken from the MPC power curve for this turbine.

Inputs
Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Input_1.png
Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Input_2.png
Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Input_3.png
Usage Example

This shows all three reference turbine signals, where LORI01 is the primary reference turbine for LORI02 and LORI04 is the secondary reference turbine for LORI02.

Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Usage_Example_1.png

In the Curtailment scheme used for the site, the Noise type is set as Referenceable. Normally, a curtailed turbine cannot be used as a reference turbine, but this overrides that behavior.

Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Usage_Example_2.png

Here we see the 2 Noise curtailment statuses, that makes the 2 turbines give a Potential power value even if they are curtailed:

Potential_Power_Reference_Turbines_-_Usage_Example_3.png
Potential Power Multiple Power Curve (MPC)

This signal provides how much power a wind turbine should theoretically be able to output based on the multiple power curve. It is calculated by using the wind speed from the turbine’s nacelle anemometer to do a look-up on the multiple power curve.

Technology

Wind

Remarks

Potential power is a linear interpolated power value based on the two power values in the learned power curve that best correspond to the wind speed value.

Equation
Potential_power_MPC_-_Equation.png

Where:

Pp

is the Potential power MPC

PC(w)

is the look-up function on the manufacturer power curve

w

is the wind speed

Inputs
Potential_power_MPC_-_Input.png
Usage Example

This will be updated later.

Potential Power Manufacturer Power Curve (Default PC)

This signal provides how much power a wind turbine should theoretically be able to output based on the manufacturer-provided power curve. It is calculated by using the wind speed from the turbine’s nacelle anemometer to do a look-up on the manufacturer's power curve.

Note

In the platform, it is called Default PC.

Technology

Wind

Remarks

The potential power default takes the minimum value of wind speed in the default power curve with a power value as cut-in wind speed and the largest wind speed value with a power value as cut-out wind speed. The power curve can be seen in the Power Curve tab of the Administrate / Wind Turbines section. In the platform, the power values can be given for wind speeds increments of 0.5 m/s.

Equation
potential_power_manufacturer_pc_eq.jpg

Where:

Pp

is the Potential power manufacturer PC (Default PC)

PC(w)

is the look-up function on the manufacturer power curve

wPC

is the power curve wind speed values

w

is the wind speed

Inputs
potential_pow_mpc_inputs.png
Usage Example

As expected, we can see in the image below that the Potential power correlates with both Wind speed and Energy export.

pot_pow_mpc_usage.png
Potential Power Learned PC

This signal provides the potential power for a turbine using values from the learned power curve. The learned power curve is calculated by the platform based on historical data of the selected turbine. For more information, see Learned Power Curve. The potential power PC takes a wind speed value and uses the learned power curve to provide the potential power value.

Technology

Wind

Remarks

Potential power is a linear interpolated power value based on the two power values in the learned power curve that best correspond to the wind speed value.

If the wind speed value requiring estimation of potential power is not in the learned power curve, the platform will interpolate using the closest wind speed values to provide a potential power estimation.

For more information on potential power, see Potential Power.

Equation
Potential_Power_Learned_PC_-_Equation.png

Where:

Pp

is the Potential power learned PC

PC(w)

is the look-up function on the learned power curve

w

is the wind speed

Inputs
Potential_Power_Learned_PC_-_Inputs.png
Usage Example

This section will be updated later.

Learned Power Curve

The learned power curve is calculated daily. On the first day of every month, the current learned power curve is saved for future reference. Greenbyte uses data from the most recent month to generate the power curve.

  • A valid power curve has a power value from the wind turbine's cut-in wind speed for each 0.5 m/s up to at least 15 m/s.

  • The minimum data set needed to generate a learned power curve is 10-minute data for wind speed and power.

  • If available, the default power curve, status events, and minimum power measurements (per 10-minute period) are also used.

If it is not possible to generate a valid power curve using only one month of data, another month’s data is added until it is possible (up to a maximum of 12 months of data).

Before the power curve is calculated, the wind speed and power data are filtered to only include data that represents a normal operation. Unwanted and deviating data is removed.

The following filters are used:

  • Filter out periods with stops or curtailment – Data during status events might deviate from normal operation.

  • Filter out periods with high and low wind speeds – Data above/below cut-out/cut-in wind speed is not interesting.

  • Filter out periods with low power – Data with a power lower than 20% of the default power curve is deviating from normal operation.

  • Filter out periods with start-up and shut-down – Data with minimum power of 0. A minimum power of 0 during 10 minutes means that the turbine was stopped at some point during the 10 minutes. A start or stop event is not a normal operation.

  • Filter outliers – Target outliers in the data to remove deviating data. The outliers are found using the interquartile range (IQR) and a lower fence of Q1-0.8×IQR  and an upper fence of Q3 + 0.8 × IQR.

Note

The time with active warnings is not filtered out.

When the data has been filtered, a best-fit line is drawn through the remaining wind speed and power observations. The best-fit line is found by taking the median of the power observations for each 0.5 m/s wind speed bin. If there are any single gaps in the best-fit line, they are filled using linear interpolation. Gaps above 15 m/s are filled using the previous wind speed bin's power value.

Manufacturer Potential Power (SCADA)

This signal is meant to combine different potential power signals from different manufacturers into one signal that can be used regardless of the manufacturer or model.

Technology

Turbine

Remarks

If there are additional signals that should be included in this signal, please reach out to your CSM.

Equation

Note

The calculation is not dependent on the wind OEM and model as it combines different potential power signals from different manufacturers into one signal.

Inputs
Manufacturer_Potential_Power__SCADA__-_Inputs.png
Usage Example
Manufacturer_Potential_Power__SCADA__-_Usage_Example.png