Cascading Potential Power  Wind
Cascading Potential Power (P_{CP}) is used for any signal requiring a potential power value, for example, Lost Production to downtime. The order of the variables to be used for calculations is determined by the potential power order assigned to the device. P_{CP} uses this potential power order to attempt to fill as many time steps as possible with potential power data. If none is specified, it will use the potential power order that is configured as the default for the portfolio.
The possible potential powers provided by the platform are listed in the Input section.
There are two subtypes of P_{CP}:
Performance
Contractual
P_{cp} Performance
P_{cp} performance is used for all performance calculations, for example, Performance Index. This uses the same potential power order as the normal P_{cp}, but it excludes potential power signals that use reference devices. This P_{cp} is only using data from the actual turbine.
P_{cp} Contractual
P_{cp} contractual is used for all contractual calculations, for example, Lost Production Contractual. This P_{cp} uses the potential power order assigned to an availability contract. Three different signals are available for service, global, and custom contracts.
Turbines
P_{CP}  Cascading Potential Power  1457
P_{CP,contract,service}  Cascading Potential Power Contractual  1458
P_{CP,contract,global}  Cascading Potential Power Contractual (Global)  6949
P_{CP,contract,custom}  Cascading Potential Power Contractual (Custom)  6950
P_{CP,perf}  Cascading Potential Power Performance  1459
Technology
Wind
Inputs
Any potential power can be added in a potential power order:
Turbines
Power Forecast  838 (This is a raw signal. Hence, it is not calculated.)
Potential power estimated  2869
Potential power MPC  2885
Potential Power Estimated
The signal estimates power by extrapolating power data between known data points before and after power data was unavailable. For any contiguous time steps of unavailable power data, the calculation uses the average of the values from the six closest time steps which have available data to fill in the missing data.
Technology
Turbine
Remarks
The signal is intended to be used as a last fallback in a cascading potential power order for when there is no data available, for example, during a full site outage.
Equation
Where:  

P_{p}  is the Potential estimated power 
P  is the Power 
P_{u}  is the Power value at the time step u 
U  is the period with Power values, 60 minutes before the latest available data before an outage. This hour may have power data missing in it, which is simply ignored. If no historic available data was found, the same search is done forward in time after the outage. 
Inputs
Usage Example
This will be updated later.
Potential Power Met Mast Anemometer & Potential Power Met Mast Anemometer MPC
These signals provide an estimation of the theoretical power that the turbine should be able to produce based on the reference wind speed of met masts. The system uses the measured wind speed of the met masts. To get the estimated wind speed, the platform calculates the average of all wind speeds from met masts referenced by the turbine to find a power value in the default power curve or the active power curve (multiple power curves). Met masts can have up to four referenced wind speed signals from their anemometers.
Technology
Wind
Remarks
N/A
Equation
Where:  

P_{p}  is the Potential power Met mast anemometer or Potential power Met mast anemometer MPC 
PC()  is the lookup function on the used Power Curve:

w_{i}  is the i^{th} referenced Wind speed from referenced met masts. 
w_{avg}  is the average Wind speed for all referenced Wind speeds from referenced met masts. 
Inputs
Default Power Curve
Multiple Power Curves
Usage Example
This section will be updated later.
Potential Power Reference Turbines
This signal calculates the potential power for a turbine.
Note
If their capacity is the same, it considers the power of the reference turbine(s).
If the turbines have different rated capacities, it normalizes them.
Turbines with an ongoing stop status are not referenceable.
When defining a turbine as a reference, it is also important to consider the curtailment schemes of the turbine under analysis. If the turbine has an active curtailment status and if the Referenceable option is enabled in the Administrate / Curtailment section, it is possible to use it as a reference turbine. Otherwise, the platform will ignore that turbine and it will take the next one or it will take the next potential power defined in the potential power order for that turbine under administrate wind turbines.
Technology
Wind
Remarks
There are multiple potential power reference turbines signals:
Potential power reference turbines (225)
Potential power primary reference turbines (1463)
Potential power secondary reference turbines (1464)
The only difference between these signals is which reference devices to look at.
Equation
Potential power reference turbines are calculated for every time step using the equation:
Where:  

P_{p}  is the Potential power reference turbines. 
P_{r}  is the Rated power for the current turbine, taken from the MPC power curve. 
n  are the number of reference turbines with a valid power curve that neither has an active Stop status nor any referenceable active Curtailment status. 
PF_{i}  is the Power factor for turbine i. 
The Power factor PF_{i} is calculated using the equation:
Where:  

P_{ai}  is the actual Power for turbine i. 
P_{ri}  is the Rated power for turbine i, taken from the MPC power curve for this turbine. 
Inputs
Usage Example
This shows all three reference turbine signals, where LORI01 is the primary reference turbine for LORI02 and LORI04 is the secondary reference turbine for LORI02.
In the Curtailment scheme used for the site, the Noise type is set as Referenceable. Normally, a curtailed turbine cannot be used as a reference turbine, but this overrides that behavior.
Here we see the 2 Noise curtailment statuses, that makes the 2 turbines give a Potential power value even if they are curtailed:
Potential Power Multiple Power Curve (MPC)
This signal provides how much power a wind turbine should theoretically be able to output based on the multiple power curve. It is calculated by using the wind speed from the turbine’s nacelle anemometer to do a lookup on the multiple power curve.
Technology
Wind
Remarks
Potential power is a linear interpolated power value based on the two power values in the learned power curve that best correspond to the wind speed value.
Equation
Where:  

P_{p}  is the Potential power MPC 
PC_{(w)}  is the lookup function on the manufacturer power curve 
w  is the wind speed 
Inputs
Usage Example
This will be updated later.
Potential Power Manufacturer Power Curve (Default PC)
This signal provides how much power a wind turbine should theoretically be able to output based on the manufacturerprovided power curve. It is calculated by using the wind speed from the turbine’s nacelle anemometer to do a lookup on the manufacturer's power curve.
Note
In the platform, it is called Default PC.
Technology
Wind
Remarks
The potential power default takes the minimum value of wind speed in the default power curve with a power value as cutin wind speed and the largest wind speed value with a power value as cutout wind speed. The power curve can be seen in the Power Curve tab of the Administrate / Wind Turbines section. In the platform, the power values can be given for wind speeds increments of 0.5 m/s.
Equation
Where:  

P_{p}  is the Potential power manufacturer PC (Default PC) 
PC_{(w)}  is the lookup function on the manufacturer power curve 
w_{PC}  is the power curve wind speed values 
w  is the wind speed 
Inputs
Usage Example
As expected, we can see in the image below that the Potential power correlates with both Wind speed and Energy export.
Potential Power Learned PC
This signal provides the potential power for a turbine using values from the learned power curve. The learned power curve is calculated by the platform based on historical data of the selected turbine. For more information, see Learned Power Curve. The potential power PC takes a wind speed value and uses the learned power curve to provide the potential power value.
Technology
Wind
Remarks
Potential power is a linear interpolated power value based on the two power values in the learned power curve that best correspond to the wind speed value.
If the wind speed value requiring estimation of potential power is not in the learned power curve, the platform will interpolate using the closest wind speed values to provide a potential power estimation.
For more information on potential power, see Potential Power.
Equation
Where:  

P_{p}  is the Potential power learned PC 
PC_{(w)}  is the lookup function on the learned power curve 
w  is the wind speed 
Inputs
Usage Example
This section will be updated later.
Learned Power Curve
The learned power curve is calculated daily. On the first day of every month, the current learned power curve is saved for future reference. Greenbyte uses data from the most recent month to generate the power curve.
A valid power curve has a power value from the wind turbine's cutin wind speed for each 0.5 m/s up to at least 15 m/s.
The minimum data set needed to generate a learned power curve is 10minute data for wind speed and power.
If available, the default power curve, status events, and minimum power measurements (per 10minute period) are also used.
If it is not possible to generate a valid power curve using only one month of data, another month’s data is added until it is possible (up to a maximum of 12 months of data).
Before the power curve is calculated, the wind speed and power data are filtered to only include data that represents a normal operation. Unwanted and deviating data is removed.
The following filters are used:
Filter out periods with stops or curtailment – Data during status events might deviate from normal operation.
Filter out periods with high and low wind speeds – Data above/below cutout/cutin wind speed is not interesting.
Filter out periods with low power – Data with a power lower than 20% of the default power curve is deviating from normal operation.
Filter out periods with startup and shutdown – Data with minimum power of 0. A minimum power of 0 during 10 minutes means that the turbine was stopped at some point during the 10 minutes. A start or stop event is not a normal operation.
Filter outliers – Target outliers in the data to remove deviating data. The outliers are found using the interquartile range (IQR) and a lower fence of Q10.8×IQR and an upper fence of Q3 + 0.8 × IQR.
Note
The time with active warnings is not filtered out.
When the data has been filtered, a bestfit line is drawn through the remaining wind speed and power observations. The bestfit line is found by taking the median of the power observations for each 0.5 m/s wind speed bin. If there are any single gaps in the bestfit line, they are filled using linear interpolation. Gaps above 15 m/s are filled using the previous wind speed bin's power value.
Manufacturer Potential Power (SCADA)
This signal is meant to combine different potential power signals from different manufacturers into one signal that can be used regardless of the manufacturer or model.
Technology
Turbine
Remarks
If there are additional signals that should be included in this signal, please reach out to your CSM.
Equation
Note
The calculation is not dependent on the wind OEM and model as it combines different potential power signals from different manufacturers into one signal.